Other

OER Higher education Other

Faculty were asked how their required printed and digital textbooks were licensed. Faculty overwhelmingly reported that they were using copyrighted printed textbooks (96%), with only small proportions stating that the text was licensed under Creative Commons (1%) or was in the public domain (4%). The numbers for the digital version of the textbook were also highly slanted towards copyrighted material, but at a rate considerably lower (78%) than for print versions. The rate that faculty said that their digital textbooks were either creative Common Commons or public domain were higher than for printed textbooks, but the second largest group (16%) were faculty reporting that they did not know how the digital materials were licensed. This is well in line with earlier results showing faculty do not have a high level of awareness of the various legal permissions that govern the use and sharing of their required textbooks.

[...]

Only a small proportion of faculty report that they are using an open-licensed textbook (defined as either public domain or Creative Commons). However, the 9% rate for 2016-17 represents a substantial increase over the rate for 2015-16 of 5%. Use of open-licensed textbooks may be rare, but it is growing.

Sample Size:
2711 faculty
Sample Description:

A total of 2,711 faculty responded to a sufficient number of questions to be included in the analysis, representing the full range of higher education institutions (two-year, four-year, all Carnegie classifications, and public, private nonprofit, and for-profit) and the complete range of faculty (full- and part-time, tenured or not, and all disciplines). More than 73% of the respondents report that they are full-time faculty members. Over 26% teach at least one online course and 28% teach at least one blended course.

Educational resource design process

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2017
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
2711 faculty
Sample description: 
Graphs: 


Content: 

Faculty were asked how their required printed and digital textbooks were licensed. Faculty overwhelmingly reported that they were using copyrighted printed textbooks (96%), with only small proportions stating that the text was licensed under Creative Commons (1%) or was in the public domain (4%). The numbers for the digital version of the textbook were also highly slanted towards copyrighted material, but at a rate considerably lower (78%) than for print versions. The rate that faculty said that their digital textbooks were either creative Common Commons or public domain were higher than for printed textbooks, but the second largest group (16%) were faculty reporting that they did not know how the digital materials were licensed. This is well in line with earlier results showing faculty do not have a high level of awareness of the various legal permissions that govern the use and sharing of their required textbooks.

[...]

Only a small proportion of faculty report that they are using an open-licensed textbook (defined as either public domain or Creative Commons). However, the 9% rate for 2016-17 represents a substantial increase over the rate for 2015-16 of 5%. Use of open-licensed textbooks may be rare, but it is growing.

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OER Higher education Other

Open licensing and the ability to reuse and remix content is central to the concept of open educational resources. It is therefore critical to understand faculty awareness of these concepts. Most faculty continue to report a high degree of awareness of copyright status of their classroom content (84% “Very aware” or “Aware”), with 96% expressing some degree of awareness. Awareness of public domain is also very high, with over 90% of respondents reporting some degree of awareness. The level of awareness of Creative Common licensing, on the other hand, is somewhat lower. Less than one-half of faculty say that they are either "Very aware" (19%) or "Aware" (28%), and only 71% report any level of awareness.

Awareness levels have been increasing for all three legal permissions. The 84% reporting that they were “Very aware” or “Aware” of copyright is a small increase over the 80% rate reported last year, and the 78% rate the year before. Awareness of public domain increased very slightly, with “Very aware” or “Aware” totals growing from 69% this year compared to 67% last year and 68% the year before. Awareness levels of Creative Commons have increased the most, with the number of faculty reporting that they were “Very aware” or “Aware” now at 47%, up from 38% last year and 36% the year before that.

Sample Size:
2711 faculty
Sample Description:

A total of 2,711 faculty responded to a sufficient number of questions to be included in the analysis, representing the full range of higher education institutions (two-year, four-year, all Carnegie classifications, and public, private nonprofit, and for-profit) and the complete range of faculty (full- and part-time, tenured or not, and all disciplines). More than 73% of the respondents report that they are full-time faculty members. Over 26% teach at least one online course and 28% teach at least one blended course.

Awareness of licensing of open educational resources

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2017
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
2711 faculty
Sample description: 
Graphs: 


Content: 

Open licensing and the ability to reuse and remix content is central to the concept of open educational resources. It is therefore critical to understand faculty awareness of these concepts. Most faculty continue to report a high degree of awareness of copyright status of their classroom content (84% “Very aware” or “Aware”), with 96% expressing some degree of awareness. Awareness of public domain is also very high, with over 90% of respondents reporting some degree of awareness. The level of awareness of Creative Common licensing, on the other hand, is somewhat lower. Less than one-half of faculty say that they are either "Very aware" (19%) or "Aware" (28%), and only 71% report any level of awareness.

Awareness levels have been increasing for all three legal permissions. The 84% reporting that they were “Very aware” or “Aware” of copyright is a small increase over the 80% rate reported last year, and the 78% rate the year before. Awareness of public domain increased very slightly, with “Very aware” or “Aware” totals growing from 69% this year compared to 67% last year and 68% the year before. Awareness levels of Creative Commons have increased the most, with the number of faculty reporting that they were “Very aware” or “Aware” now at 47%, up from 38% last year and 36% the year before that.

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OER Higher education Other
Sample Size:
2711 faculty
Sample Description:

A total of 2,711 faculty responded to a sufficient number of questions to be included in the analysis, representing the full range of higher education institutions (two-year, four-year, all Carnegie classifications, and public, private nonprofit, and for-profit) and the complete range of faculty (full- and part-time, tenured or not, and all disciplines). More than 73% of the respondents report that they are full-time faculty members. Over 26% teach at least one online course and 28% teach at least one blended course.

Importance of factors in selecting required course materials

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2017
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
2711 faculty
Sample description: 
Graphs: 


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OER Higher education Other

Many faculty members have only a vague understanding of the details of what constitutes open educational resources. Some confuse “open” with “free,” and assume all free resources are OER. Others confuse “open resources” with “open source,” and assume OER refers only to open source software. Because of these differing levels of understanding, the phrasing of the awareness question needs to be specific. […]

When faculty members were asked to self-report their level of awareness of open educational resources, a majority (56%) said that they were generally unaware of OER (“I am not aware of OER” or “I have heard of OER, but don't know much about them”). These results were confirmed by faculty comments, and some showed excitement or desire to learn more. Only 10% reported that they were very aware (“I am very aware of OER and know how they can be used in the classroom”), and twice that many (20%) said that they were aware (“I am aware of OER and some of their use cases”). An additional 15% of faculty reported that they were only somewhat aware (“I am somewhat aware of OER but I am not sure how they can be used”).

[...]

The 2016-17 results reinforce the trend of increased awareness of OER observed over the past two surveys. Faculty claiming to be very aware doubled from 5% in 2014-15 to 10% in the most recent year. Those saying that they were “aware” grew from 15% to 20%, and those “somewhat aware” from 14% to 15%. The proportion that reported no awareness dropped from nearly two-thirds (66%) in 2014-15 to just over 50% (56%) this year.

Sample Size:
2711 faculty
Sample Description:

A total of 2,711 faculty responded to a sufficient number of questions to be included in the analysis, representing the full range of higher education institutions (two-year, four-year, all Carnegie classifications, and public, private nonprofit, and for-profit) and the complete range of faculty (full- and part-time, tenured or not, and all disciplines). More than 73% of the respondents report that they are full-time faculty members. Over 26% teach at least one online course and 28% teach at least one blended course.

Awareness of open educational resources

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2017
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
2711 faculty
Sample description: 
Graphs: 


Content: 

Many faculty members have only a vague understanding of the details of what constitutes open educational resources. Some confuse “open” with “free,” and assume all free resources are OER. Others confuse “open resources” with “open source,” and assume OER refers only to open source software. Because of these differing levels of understanding, the phrasing of the awareness question needs to be specific. […]

When faculty members were asked to self-report their level of awareness of open educational resources, a majority (56%) said that they were generally unaware of OER (“I am not aware of OER” or “I have heard of OER, but don't know much about them”). These results were confirmed by faculty comments, and some showed excitement or desire to learn more. Only 10% reported that they were very aware (“I am very aware of OER and know how they can be used in the classroom”), and twice that many (20%) said that they were aware (“I am aware of OER and some of their use cases”). An additional 15% of faculty reported that they were only somewhat aware (“I am somewhat aware of OER but I am not sure how they can be used”).

[...]

The 2016-17 results reinforce the trend of increased awareness of OER observed over the past two surveys. Faculty claiming to be very aware doubled from 5% in 2014-15 to 10% in the most recent year. Those saying that they were “aware” grew from 15% to 20%, and those “somewhat aware” from 14% to 15%. The proportion that reported no awareness dropped from nearly two-thirds (66%) in 2014-15 to just over 50% (56%) this year.

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MOOCs Other Other

5 Biggest MOOC Trends

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Publication Year: 
2016
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Category of Information: 
 
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Sample description: 
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Online learning Other Other

LEARNING AND TRAINING IS HOT AGAIN
There is a broad agreement between analysts about the fact that in the near future organizations of all sizes will increase their budget expenditure for training purposes. The anticipated increase in an organization’s training budgets could be attributed to the following reasons:

• A broadening of the scope of the training programs
• Additional training staff
• An increase in the number served learners

Learning and training leaders have also noted economic constraints, new technologies, and workforce re-skilling as influencers of future budget allocation, according to the 2015 Training Industry Report by Training Magazine. According to Brandon Hall Group, L&D leaders will allocate future budgets to stay in line with company growth goals. In the upcoming years, they are expected to consult more and more C-level executives to ensure their learning strategies are aligned with future business objectives.

Source of the figure: Mosher & Gottfredson, 2011

The Five Moments of Need

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2016
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
Sample description: 
Graphs: 

Content: 

LEARNING AND TRAINING IS HOT AGAIN
There is a broad agreement between analysts about the fact that in the near future organizations of all sizes will increase their budget expenditure for training purposes. The anticipated increase in an organization’s training budgets could be attributed to the following reasons:

• A broadening of the scope of the training programs
• Additional training staff
• An increase in the number served learners

Learning and training leaders have also noted economic constraints, new technologies, and workforce re-skilling as influencers of future budget allocation, according to the 2015 Training Industry Report by Training Magazine. According to Brandon Hall Group, L&D leaders will allocate future budgets to stay in line with company growth goals. In the upcoming years, they are expected to consult more and more C-level executives to ensure their learning strategies are aligned with future business objectives.

Source of the figure: Mosher & Gottfredson, 2011

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MOOCs Higher education Other
Sample Size:
51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014
Sample Description:

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, University of Washington, and Coursera conducted the first longitudinal study of open online learning outcomes. [It is] a longitudinal study investigating the self-reported impact of open online courses on the lives of learners. In December 2014, researchers received survey responses from 51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014.

MOOCs learners report significant career and educational benefits

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2015
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014
Sample description: 
Graphs: 



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MOOCs Higher education Other

The Career Builders. All data in this section is based on the 52% of learners who were self-reported career builders. Online learners are experiencing a variety of career benefits. [*Tangible benefits]

 

Sample Size:
51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014
Sample Description:

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, University of Washington, and Coursera conducted the first longitudinal study of open online learning outcomes. [It is] a longitudinal study investigating the self-reported impact of open online courses on the lives of learners. In December 2014, researchers received survey responses from 51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014.

MOOCs learners are experiencing a variety of career benefits

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2015
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014
Sample description: 
Graphs: 

Content: 

The Career Builders. All data in this section is based on the 52% of learners who were self-reported career builders. Online learners are experiencing a variety of career benefits. [*Tangible benefits]

 

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MOOCs Higher education Other

The Education Seekers. All data in this section is based on the 27% of learners who were self-reported education seekers. Learners use online courses as a stepping stone in traditional education.

Sample Size:
27% of 51,954 learners who were self-reported education seekers
Sample Description:

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, University of Washington, and Coursera conducted the first longitudinal study of open online learning outcomes. [It is] a longitudinal study investigating the self-reported impact of open online courses on the lives of learners. In December 2014, researchers received survey responses from 51,954 learners who completed online courses on Coursera prior to September 1, 2014.

MOOC learners use online courses as a stepping stone in traditional education

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2015
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
27% of 51,954 learners who were self-reported education seekers
Sample description: 
Graphs: 

Content: 

The Education Seekers. All data in this section is based on the 27% of learners who were self-reported education seekers. Learners use online courses as a stepping stone in traditional education.

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MOOCs Other Other

Top 2015 Trends

MOOCs find business models: One of the big trends last year was MOOC providers creating their own credentials: Udacity’s Nanodegrees, Coursera’s Specializationsand edX’s Xseries. For Coursera and Udacity, these credentials have become a main source of revenue, and both companies have raised big venture rounds to create more. Currently there are more than 100 credentials available from MOOC providers.

EdX, on the other hand is focusing on creating ways for students to earn credit with MOOCs. Earlier this year in April, the nonprofit partnered with Arizona State University to create the Global Freshman Academy. It is also pursuing partnerships with credit-granting institutions that students can earn credits through schools including the American Council on Education, Charter Oak State College and MIT.

Death of free certificates: The pursuit of revenues has meant that many MOOC providers have stopped offering free certificates. The average course of a Coursera certificate is $56; for edX, $53. Coursera is going one step further and is introducing a paywall for graded assignments for some courses.

Rise of self-paced courses: MOOCs started out with a structure parallel to college classroom courses, with a start and end date, and specific deadlines for assignments. One issue with these courses is that students would not know when—or if—the class would be offered again. Currently, 55% of all courses listed on Class Central do not have an upcoming start date.

Recently, MOOC providers have moved towards a self-paced model, meaning that courses are always open to signup and users can complete a course at their own pace. There are now more than 800 self-paced courses (20% of all MOOCs on Class Central), and the number is growing quickly. Coursera also introduced regularly scheduled sessions with soft deadlines. These sessions usually run once a month. If a student is not able to finish the course, they can always move to the next session without losing their place in the course.

Targeting high school: MOOC providers have started targeting high schoolers with the intentions of closing the college readiness gap, helping students to get a taste of different majors through introductory courses, and providing exam preparation (like AP) courses.Two specific MOOC providers are leading the charge: edX with its High School Initiative, and FutureLearn with the Going to University Collection.

2015: Less Experimentation, More Iteration

If the first generation of MOOCs was simply a catalog of free courses, today’s MOOCs are created with more intentionality and, for learners, practical outcomes. The concept behind online courses still remains the same, but the packaging has evolved. That the “Big Three” MOOC providers are now focused on making credentials matter—whether through Nanodegrees, Specializations or course credits—signals a maturation in offering a clearer value proposition. (From the company’s perspective, it also helps that credentials have now become the business model that so many have asked about.)

In 2016, we can expect to see a lot more credentials and credits. But as MOOC providers try to aggressively monetize, early adopters may find that critical components of the learning experience will no longer be free.

MOOCs - Top 2015 Trends

Resource: 
 
Publication Year: 
2015
Trends: 
 
Settings: 
 
Category of Information: 
 
Sample size: 
Sample description: 
Content: 

Top 2015 Trends

MOOCs find business models: One of the big trends last year was MOOC providers creating their own credentials: Udacity’s Nanodegrees, Coursera’s Specializationsand edX’s Xseries. For Coursera and Udacity, these credentials have become a main source of revenue, and both companies have raised big venture rounds to create more. Currently there are more than 100 credentials available from MOOC providers.

EdX, on the other hand is focusing on creating ways for students to earn credit with MOOCs. Earlier this year in April, the nonprofit partnered with Arizona State University to create the Global Freshman Academy. It is also pursuing partnerships with credit-granting institutions that students can earn credits through schools including the American Council on Education, Charter Oak State College and MIT.

Death of free certificates: The pursuit of revenues has meant that many MOOC providers have stopped offering free certificates. The average course of a Coursera certificate is $56; for edX, $53. Coursera is going one step further and is introducing a paywall for graded assignments for some courses.

Rise of self-paced courses: MOOCs started out with a structure parallel to college classroom courses, with a start and end date, and specific deadlines for assignments. One issue with these courses is that students would not know when—or if—the class would be offered again. Currently, 55% of all courses listed on Class Central do not have an upcoming start date.

Recently, MOOC providers have moved towards a self-paced model, meaning that courses are always open to signup and users can complete a course at their own pace. There are now more than 800 self-paced courses (20% of all MOOCs on Class Central), and the number is growing quickly. Coursera also introduced regularly scheduled sessions with soft deadlines. These sessions usually run once a month. If a student is not able to finish the course, they can always move to the next session without losing their place in the course.

Targeting high school: MOOC providers have started targeting high schoolers with the intentions of closing the college readiness gap, helping students to get a taste of different majors through introductory courses, and providing exam preparation (like AP) courses.Two specific MOOC providers are leading the charge: edX with its High School Initiative, and FutureLearn with the Going to University Collection.

2015: Less Experimentation, More Iteration

If the first generation of MOOCs was simply a catalog of free courses, today’s MOOCs are created with more intentionality and, for learners, practical outcomes. The concept behind online courses still remains the same, but the packaging has evolved. That the “Big Three” MOOC providers are now focused on making credentials matter—whether through Nanodegrees, Specializations or course credits—signals a maturation in offering a clearer value proposition. (From the company’s perspective, it also helps that credentials have now become the business model that so many have asked about.)

In 2016, we can expect to see a lot more credentials and credits. But as MOOC providers try to aggressively monetize, early adopters may find that critical components of the learning experience will no longer be free.

Notes: 

EdSurge News (2015). MOOCs in 2015: Breaking Down the Numbers

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